3 circles of english. Three circles of English 2022-11-15
3 circles of english Rating:
The English language can be divided into three distinct circles: the inner circle, the outer circle, and the expanding circle.
The inner circle refers to English-speaking countries where English is the primary language and is used as the official language of government, education, and media. These countries include the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. In these countries, English is spoken natively by the majority of the population and is used as the dominant language in all aspects of life.
The outer circle refers to countries where English is not the primary language, but it is still used as an official language or as a lingua franca for international communication. These countries include India, Singapore, and many African and Caribbean countries. In these countries, English is spoken by a minority of the population, often as a second language, and it is used primarily for business, education, and official purposes.
The expanding circle refers to countries where English is not an official language, but it is still widely taught and spoken as a second or foreign language. These countries include much of Europe, South America, and Asia. In these countries, English is not used as the dominant language in everyday life, but it is seen as important for education, business, and international communication.
In summary, the three circles of English refer to the different ways in which the English language is used and spoken around the world. The inner circle consists of countries where English is the primary language, the outer circle includes countries where English is an official or important language, and the expanding circle consists of countries where English is widely taught and spoken as a second or foreign language.
Three circles of English
One common denominator that bonds all of the countries contained in the outer circle together are the lack of a single unifying language. There is a well-known model in which three circles of the English language spread: the inner circle, the outer ring, and the expanding circle. The Three-circle Model fails to consider the growth of English in the world. In fact, the three varieties are mutually inclusive and grey areas exist. In fact, the three varieties are mutually inclusive and grey areas exist. In addition to the quality of work freely available, Shakespeare is revered for an ability portraying themes of human experience in a timeless way that has continued relevancy long after his death AA100, Walder, pp. The classification between the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle becomes difficult.
Instead of categorizing the English speakers based on national identity, the revised model can be classified in terms of the English proficiency in international and regional varieties. Englishes in the Expanding Circle are seen as far removed from the Inner Circle core and marginalized. The Three-circle Model fails to consider the growth of English in the world. In South Africa, it is customary for a particular segment of the population with a high educational level and social status to speak English including elements of the Hausa language. From some of these changes, other literary canons may also develop as a direct result to challenge cultural viewpoints of what is usually western-led literature.
Kachru's 3 Concentric Circles: Models, Circle & Limitations
To conclude, Kachru Three-Circle model has limitations to reflect the reality of English use. The expanding circle much of the rest of the world is 'norm-dependent', because it relies on the standards set by native speakers in the inner circle. However, even today, in the UK and the USA, there are fewer and fewer native English speakers due to an increase in the number of immigrants. Type Features Examples Inner circle Countries where people use English as a native language Great Britain, USA Outer circle States which used to be colonies of Great Britain and have English as the second official language India, New Zealand Expanding circle Countries where English is considered as a foreign language China, Egypt. The countries in the Expanding Circle include China, Japan, Greece and Poland Crsytal, 1997. Refer to this problem; Rajadurai 2005 has presented a different Three-Circle Model: "While acknowledging the fuzzy distinctions between circles, in principle, the inner circle could comprise all users who are proficient in English and able to instinctively codeswitch between international and national or regional varieties to communicate in the most appropriate way.
The Three Circles of English: Language Specialists Talk about the English ...
Over time, literary canons will reflect these changes, works may be added or removed from the canon. Three Circle Model of World Englishes English The Three-circle Model of World Englishes was developed by Kachru in 1985 and it remains one of the most influential models for grouping the varieties of English in the world Mollin, 2006, p. Most of the countries included in the Outer Circle are former colonies of the UK or the USA, such as Malaysia, Singapore, India, Ghana, Kenya and others Rajadurai, 2005. However what would be most beguiling to the British then is now being carried out by the Indian Bengali author Jhumpa Lahiri. In the countries of the outer circle, attention should be paid to the commercialization of English-language training. Welsh poet RS Thomas wrote about the effect that English had on the already established native Welsh language.
These new varieties have their own characteristics and are constantly developing their own norms and standards. English native speakers are visually not privileged since they are not placed at the top of the Three-circle Model. Within Anglophile Africa, education of the upper classes brought stagnation within their own cultural languages that in turn led to a counter culture that attacked the colonial ideas which sought to subdue their own native ideologies. Therefore, the Three-circle Model should be modified to a more dynamic one to represent the actual use of English. However, for them, the period of language adaptation will be much shorter than for people who do not initially speak the English language. However, Crystal 1995 comments that the model cannot represent the reality of international English use because the reality is often not so clear-cut. For them, English remains their second language, and these users are not the ones who set the language standard.
Kachru 1985 himself has noted that the concentric circles may be oversimplified and fuzzy areas exist. Finally, the expanding circle encompasses those countries where English plays no historical or governmental role, but where it is nevertheless widely used as a foreign language or lingua franca. It can be observed that there is a merging of the Outer and Expanding Circles. The Circles of EnglishSee also: World Englishes To better understand the use of English in different countries, Kachru conceived the idea of three concentric circles of the language. Kachru's model describes the Inner Circle, Outer Circle and Expanding Circle as 'norm-providing', norm-developing' and 'norm-dependent'.
Think of James Joyce and Robert Burns who are now firmly in the canon of English writers along with Thomas himself were not English and had to write and publish their work using English just to receive acclaim and are still actively studied. The inner circle UK, US,etc. Nigeria, that were originally colonised by English-speaking countries U214, 2012a, p. Some special cases like South Africa and Jamaica are difficult to be classified. The Three-circle Model implies that the Outer Circle cannot merge into the Inner Circle Patil, 2006.
English as a Global Language: What are 'Kachru's Three Circles of English'? Free Essay Example
One of the most exciting features in English literature is an explosion of postcolonial literature written in English based in formerly colonised societies. However, Crystal 1995 comments that the model cannot represent the reality of international English use because the reality is often not so clear-cut. English literature is conveyed to readers obviously using the English language but, some of the writers that have contributed to the canon may not be essentially from England; as an example, Joseph Conrad was originally from Poland and John Steinbeck was an American. In fact, the range of English use in the Expanding Circle has become much wider due to the increasing growth of English. Examples of countries in the outer circle include: China, Brazil, Russia, Japan, and many more. Next comes the outer circle, which includes countries where English is not the native tongue, but is important for historical reasons and plays a part in the nation's institutions, either as an official language or otherwise.
To conclude, Kachru Three-Circle model has limitations to reflect the reality of English use. The territories do not have a history of colonization by members of the Inner Circle and institutional or social role. The varieties of English used here are said to be 'norm providing'. The countries involved in the Inner Circle include the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It can therefore be argued that these people are native speakers of English, despite living in an Outer Circle country. In the future, their children will be able to get higher education in English and find work in prestigious international companies. Examples include China, Brazil, Russia, Japan, and many more.