4 types of leadership theories. 20 Types of Leadership Models and Theories in Management 2022-10-28
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Leadership theories seek to explain how and why certain individuals become leaders. Over the years, a number of different leadership theories have been proposed, each offering a unique perspective on the nature of leadership and how it can be exercised effectively. In this essay, we will explore four of the most prominent leadership theories: trait theory, behavioral theory, contingency theory, and transformational leadership.
Trait theory: This leadership theory suggests that leaders possess certain inherent traits or characteristics that enable them to effectively lead others. According to trait theory, leaders are born with qualities such as charisma, intelligence, and confidence, which help them to inspire and guide their followers. This theory has been supported by research showing that leaders tend to share certain traits, such as high levels of emotional intelligence and self-confidence. However, critics of trait theory argue that it does not adequately explain how leaders develop these traits or how they can be learned by others.
Behavioral theory: This leadership theory focuses on the actions and behaviors of leaders, rather than their inherent traits. According to behavioral theory, effective leaders exhibit certain behaviors that are conducive to good leadership, such as setting clear goals, communicating effectively, and providing support and direction to their followers. This theory suggests that leadership can be learned and developed through training and practice, rather than being an innate quality. Critics of behavioral theory argue that it does not adequately account for the influence of individual differences and situational factors on leadership effectiveness.
Contingency theory: This leadership theory proposes that the most effective leadership style depends on the specific situation at hand. According to contingency theory, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to leadership and the best course of action will depend on a variety of factors, including the nature of the task, the characteristics of the followers, and the leader's own skills and abilities. This theory suggests that leaders must be adaptable and flexible, using a range of different styles depending on the needs of the situation. Critics of contingency theory argue that it can be difficult to determine the most appropriate leadership style in a given situation and that it may not adequately account for the role of the leader's personal characteristics and behaviors.
Transformational leadership: This leadership theory emphasizes the role of the leader in inspiring and motivating followers to achieve their full potential. Transformational leaders are seen as visionary and charismatic, able to inspire their followers to work towards a shared goal or vision. This theory suggests that transformational leaders are able to create a sense of meaning and purpose for their followers, and that this leads to increased commitment and performance. Critics of transformational leadership argue that it may not be suitable for all situations and that it can be difficult to measure its effectiveness.
In conclusion, these four leadership theories offer different perspectives on the nature of leadership and how it can be exercised effectively. While each theory has its own strengths and weaknesses, they all highlight the importance of understanding the individual and situational factors that influence leadership effectiveness. Whether through inherent traits, specific behaviors, adaptability, or inspiration, effective leadership involves the ability to effectively guide and motivate others towards a shared goal.
13.2 The History of Leadership Theories
The third level is belongingness. And in the July, 1928 issue of The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, researcher W. It is similar to the job-centered leader behavior of the Michigan studies, but includes a broader range of managerial functions such as planning, organizing, and directing. Related: Top 9 leadership skills to develop What are the common leadership styles? While there are dozens of leadership theories and psychology, there are a few that are more well-known. The model of this formula by Beckhard and Harris is attributed to David Gleicher.
Though every member can play perfectly on their own, if they come together, they will only produce incompatible melody; an orchestra can only create harmonious music when it is led by a conductor. Supportive Leadership: Supportive Leadership behavior involves creating a pleasant organizational climate. The unorthodox norms in Japanese social structure are actually the reason behind the success of this model. However, the military forces are keen to know that the skills acquired and used in one situation mostly does not apply to other situations. Recently leadership theories have been more formalized, making them easier to understand, discuss, and analyze in action. For this, we suggest that you focus on being an Inclusive Leader, constantly involving people in your style of work. Very few people with lower status had the opportunity to lead, and this contributed to the idea that these leadership qualities were something one was born with.
This theory believes there is no single leadership that is appropriate in all situations. Researchers define situational leaders based on their flexibility and capability to act at the moment. Is nature or nurture the more important factor in determining leadership? A people-oriented leader will look at the individuals and go right to them, asking what the issue is. Business objectives, employee engagement, and organizational success make up the focus of this formula. Transactional leadership is a system of rewards and punishments, and transactional leadership is regularly used in business. According to Maslow, there are basically 5 levels of the hierarchy: The first level is Physiological. This style of leadership is considered appropriate when the team is capable, is motivated, and is able to run without close supervision.
However, in real life, it often produces a lack of motivation since the inputs of the experts can become nullified by the ones that offer no value to the team. Can leadership be learned, or is there a magical combination of trait, behavior and situation that allows leaders to rise to the occasion? This style is based on positional power, hierarchy and control. Charismatic leaders have a natural ability to attract people and inspire commitment to their cause. It can result in increased motivation. Most versions tell either of how Arthur became king when the Lady of the Lake gave him a sword called Excalibur, or of how he was the only one capable of pulling the sword from a stone.
Some common examples are freedom from war, violence, job security and work safety. The founder of the Joie de Vivre hotel chain and head of Hospitality at Airbnb, Chip Conley, transformed his business through the uses of the theory. Will they grow as professionals and people? Strong ethics and high moral standards are among the top qualities that leaders say are essential to good leadership, according to leadership theories, which focus on the traits and behaviors that people can adopt to increase their leadership capabilities. If you agreed with only the third statement, but also with everything the alchemist said, this would make you a transformative leader by 50%, strategic by 25% and democratic by 25%. Authentic Leadership Model Authentic leaders are all about sincerity.
Examples of these include the enjoyment of work, and career progression. Two other models have emerged in recent trait leadership studies. Either way, he was the chosen one, he possessed a certain something, and, by divine right, he became the king of Britain. Some of these heroes were mythological, like Odysseus, descendant of the gods and hero of the Trojan War, and others, like Alexander the Great and Hannibal Barca, earned their distinction in battles won against nearly insurmountable odds, immortalized in stories retold over generations. Remember that Cowley wrote that traits collectively lent themselves to leadership effectiveness. The contingency theory has great advantages, including that leaders are able to be effective no matter their situational context. In any project, a leader determines the best score of it.
Overall, traditional consultative leadership style is not an effective way of managing a team or organization in the long run. Learning about leadership theories and leadership styles is beneficial to employees in all roles, even those who don't explicitly hold a leadership position. Those behaviors were task-focused and people focused. The leader sets clear objectives and the team members know how they will be rewarded for their fulfillment. Those leaders that are concerned with the task are engaging in behaviors called initiation of structure.
Personal Leadership Style Analysis 628 Words 3 Pages Situational leadership is another example of a leadership theory. The situational theory The situational theory of leadership doesn't relate to a certain type of leader or claim that any particular style is better than another. Employees feel more engaged and motivated when they are directly involved in decisions and outcomes for their company. Fiedler then started comparing task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders and their performances, based on the twenty-four possible combinations of the situations above, and this was the result: Figure 1. It included personal and financial security, as well as health and wellbeing. However, this model needs further testing before the approach can be used as a definitive guide for managerial action.
20 Types of Leadership Models and Theories in Management
Finding the right combination of characteristics for you is key. Style 1 requires close supervision by the leader for the express purpose of identifying any signs of incremental progress to be recognized by the leader in an effort to accelerate ongoing development. Again, this can be any positive trait, as they all have their uses. This theory considers character traits exclusively and not individual behavior. In its definition, leadership is a process by which a person influences others to achieve an objective and directs the group in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. The primary purpose of this study was to determine what qualities were possessed by great leaders Northouse, 2016. Different theories may work better for different people and assessing what works best for you is always the most ideal option.