Breast cancer is a type of cancer that affects the cells in the breast. It is the most common type of cancer in women, and although it can also occur in men, it is much less common. The causes of breast cancer are not fully understood, but there are several risk factors that have been identified, including age, family history, certain genetic mutations, and certain lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and lack of exercise.
There are several different types of breast cancer, which can be classified based on the types of cells that are affected and how aggressive the cancer is. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which begins in the cells of the milk ducts. Another common type is lobular carcinoma, which begins in the milk-producing glands. There are also more rare types of breast cancer such as inflammatory breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer.
The symptoms of breast cancer can vary, but the most common symptom is a new lump or mass in the breast. Other symptoms may include changes in the size or shape of the breast, changes to the skin of the breast such as dimpling or puckering, and changes to the nipple such as inversion or discharge. It is important to note that not all breast lumps are cancerous, and many benign (non-cancerous) breast conditions can cause similar symptoms.
Diagnosing breast cancer typically involves a combination of physical examination, mammography, and biopsy. A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast that can help to identify abnormalities such as lumps or masses. A biopsy is a procedure in which a sample of tissue is taken from the breast and examined under a microscope to determine if cancer cells are present. If breast cancer is diagnosed, further testing may be done to determine the stage of the cancer and what treatment options are available.
Treatment for breast cancer can vary depending on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the individual's overall health. Common treatments include surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, and radiation therapy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Hormonal therapy and targeted therapy may also be used to help prevent the cancer from returning or spreading.
Breast cancer can be a life-threatening disease, but early detection and treatment can significantly improve the chances of survival. It is important for women to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular mammograms and breast exams as recommended by their healthcare provider. Self-exams and regular medical check-ups can also help to identify any potential issues early on, when they are most treatable.
Breast Cancer: Research Review Paper
With breast cancer being one of the top five killers of man-kind, I wanted to give information in regards to what the disease is. Early recurrences or even a second ipsilateral carcinoma of restricted size can also be treated with conservative surgery. In patients younger than 48 years who receive an intraoperative boost dose of 12 Gy, a rapid course of external radiotherapy is used 13 fractions of 2. With this in mind, I would like to investigate this group of women. Attempts have been made to identify these populations, which might include individuals with small, low-grade tumors that are estrogenrecept-or-positive, or elderly patients resected with wide tumor-free margins, but no subgroup has been identified that would be adequately treated by breast-conserving surgery alone.
Finally, genetic factors significantly increase the risk of breast cancer. The hormonal risk is the fact that a female hormone such as estrogen and progesterone is the reason breast cancer may form. Mutations that lead to the inactivation of these two genes increases breast cancer risk by up to 80%. Eribulin for Advanced Breast Cancer: A Drug Evaulation. If earlier it was believed that obesity is a problem only for the countries with high income, now overweight and obese people are found around the world. The decline in mortality rates in Western Europe, Australia, and the Americas may be due to widespread mammographic screening, good diagnosis, and increased numbers of women receiving the best treatment, including hormonal drugs Ferlay et al.
Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer except lung cancer. There is an apparent impact of c. Incidence peaks between the ages of 75-80, women who reach menarche before the age of 11 have a 20% higher risk of getting cancer, and women who give birth before the age of 20 have half the rates of women aged more than 35 at the time of their first birth Robbins, 2009, p. Early detection of breast cancer is key so that cancerous cells found in the breast do not spread through other parts of the body. When prescribed, chemotherapy should be given before the start of tamoxifen treatment.
More than one million cases occur worldwide annually Zelman, M. For instance, in women with a stage 0 tumor, that is, no lymph node involvement and no metastases, the five year survival rate is 99%. The present biometric, anatomical description will probably be replaced by molecular staging. When a cell dies the body automatically replaces it with a new healthy cell, but sometimes the cell is not healthy and grows out of control. Harvested cells can then be examined not only for morphological changes but also for the expression of early markers of cell transformation that will eventually be identified.
Overall, it seems appropriate to interview approximately 250 women from different hospitals, hospices, and, perhaps, at their homes. That is why African American women and women living in rural areas have low rates of illness and consequently low mortality rates. Breast cancer risk factors are set out in Table 1. What Is Breast Cancer Breast cancer will strike one in every eight American women. Komen Foundation a non-organization corporation that is interested in reducing issues of breast cancer among women.
However, early detection is the key to success in the battle against breast cancer. Unfortunately, they usually consume no more food than people of normal weight, and the cause of obesity lies in the presence of complex metabolic disorders leading to the accumulation and deposition of the excess fat. Breast cancer can affect the breasts, cells, glands, and lymphatic system. Chemotherapy is also effective in endocrineresponsive disease, but the chances of more extensive cell killing are lower for these tumors than for tumors that are unresponsive. Targeted therapy is a more recent treatment plan that utilizes biologics that target specific molecular pathways and thus have fewer adverse side effects Sledge et al. Breast cancer crosses all demographic lines, affecting women of all ages, races, ethnic groups, socioeconomic strata and geographic locales.
High risk of relapse with metastatic lymph nodes in the operated axilla or vascular invasion can justify some chemotherapy being given before endocrine treatment in adjuvant therapy. Adjuvant systemic treatments are usually offered to reduce the risk of relapse. What comes first on the stage of diagnosis is the detection of tumor. Approximately 200 000 deaths from breast cancer occur in developed countries and 200 000 in developing countries. This fact is very important to know that 85 to 90 percent of breast cancers are not always hereditary and all women need to get screened for breast cancer. More test needs to be done to validate this finding and to find more potential correlations.
Even though the tests show cancer, I am thankful that I had the annual test. Journal of Hematology and Oncology. This has made a definite contribution to lower mortality. These new classifications are designed to prevent overstaging of the disease and hence overtreatment for the patient. By analyzing these studies a conclusion will be created in efforts to learn if determinable ethnic factors create a higher risk for breast cancer. Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. In view of the uncertainty of the occurrence of true preneoplastic lesions of the breast, the morphologically identifiable initial phases of neoplastic transformation remain in situ neoplasia, either ductal or lobular.
From mastectomy, aggressive treatments were introduced to conserve the breast of the patient. The risk of breast cancer is raised in women using hormone-replacement therapy and increases with duration of use. Learn more Gap analysis of the previous investigation In order to deepen the investigation, the so-called gap analysis was provided as new study would contribute to an understanding of the topic in a way that could improve clinical practice for the nurse practitioner and improve patient outcomes. Progress in Using Circulating Tumor Cell Information to Improve Metastatic Breast Cancer Therapy. About one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer every year, a fatal disease if not discovered early. As I do more research on breast cancer, I see that the lump in a malignant tumor that starts off in the cells of the breast. Generally speaking, breast cancer is divided into two types—non-invasive and invasive.
Breast cancer may be treated by surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, bone-directed therapy, and targeted therapy. Secondary prevention screening is aimed at detecting and treating persons with a premalignant condition or an in situ malignancy, thus blocking its evolution to an invasive cancer. Quantification of tumor cells circulating in the blood of patients with breast cancer may also be a predictor of the duration of survival. Worldwide, some 50 million women are living after a previous breast cancer experience. Genomics and pharmacogenomics of breast cancer: current knowledge and trends.