Our charges are low while the quality remains uncompromised. The four types of knowing are not mutually exclusive and are often used in tandem to provide comprehensive care to patients. For example, the sun rises in the east is a fact that we can vouch for every day when we wake up. This assurance was what the poor child needed in order to smile again. The first category is cognitive.
Popper proposed that there are three worlds: the physical world, the mental world and the third world. There are four different types of knowing in nursing: empirical, personal, ethical, and esthetic. Ethical knowing according to Carper 1978 acknowledges the knowledge of ethical codes and norms by examining the codes, standards and values that are seen as morally right resulting in better awareness of the moral choices that are to be made. The authors give related opinions as those of Carper on their definitions. This paper considers an interpretation of the ways of knowing by Carper: ethics, personal, empirics and aesthetics. They were interpreted, classified and indexed to identify types of knowledge nurses use to care for hospitalized patients. Understanding self includes the knowledge that other people have changing personalities.
However, it exceeds the knowledge of the ethical codes of conduct as according to Carper 1978 , and is also inclusive of all deliberate voluntary actions that are subject to judgment of what is right or wrong. Personal Every shred of information and attitude that is developed through personal learning, self-understanding and empathy is a personal way of knowing. Without this understanding, it would be difficult to provide high-quality care to patients. Chinn and Kramer 1999 describe the pattern of personal knowing as a creation of experiences through self-encounters by focusing on the self and having a realization of the potentials and realities of life. The ethical exemplar has influenced my practice by giving me knowledge on how to face dilemmas involving children and their guardians.
Carper proposed the four patterns in 1978 to characterize the complex phenomenon of knowledge utilized by nurses when providing care to the patients. In order to gain knowledge one has to be able to learn, and each individual has a special way in which they learn; these are known as The learning style theory thinks of the brain as a place that can process information in one of two ways, globally or analytically Westen et al, 2006, p. It has since guided the nursing practice, education, and research that form todays nursing theories Colley, 2003. And it is also necessary, right? Nurses gain personal knowledge from subjective data. The physicalist approach to nursing focuses on the first world, emphasising observable phenomena. American Family Physician, 74 11 , 1893-1900.
It is this type of knowledge that helps us to decide based on our personal values. The department manager spoke with the physician and expressed her concerns as well and he reluctantly ran some further testing on the patient. When I assess the patient, she was not in any acute distress, however, I auscultated expiratory and inspiratory wheezes in her right lung and diminished breath sounds in her left lung. It can be both positive and negative experiences. There is also the involvement of encounters, experiences and focus.
How is reason a way of knowing? On the other hand, it is an essential pattern of understanding the meanings of health terms of the well-being of individuals. Empirical knowledge encompasses Personal Knowing Personal knowledge comes through our own experiences. Much of what is already known can be expressed formally even in practice. This type of knowledge can be increased by practice and by trial and error. The family reported to me during my assessment that she had been seen earlier in the day as well for similar complaints but that this episode had been much worse than the first.
She went to the clinical setting and asked practicing nurses to describe specific cases or situations they had encountered which stood out in their memories. The methods of acquiring knowledge can be broken down into five categories each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The main aspect of personal knowledge is the encountering, knowing and actualizing of the individual self. Being able to understand Carpers four fundamental ways of knowing makes it possible for nurses to increase their knowledge Heath, 1998. For example, you did not know that a nurse is expected to take charge of the situation when a doctor is unavailable.
The visible component, according to Weidenbach, which verifies the action taken by the nurse, is what validates the action taken by the nurse. Carper has been a nurse, a trainer and a professor at the Texas University. Knowing is a way of perception and understanding of the world and the self, while knowledge is a reasonably accurate accounts of the world. Working in a pediatric emergency room necessitates personal knowledge. These four patterns include: personal, empirical, ethical, and aesthetic knowing. Empirical knowledge comes through experience rather than deductive reasoning and innate ideas. Tempers had risen, as the social workers were of the opinion that the grandmother was taking them for a ride.
On one hand, the life of the traumatized boy with physical abuse was at stake. All trademarks, logos and brand names are the property of their respective owners. All university related assistance services, materials and their names used in this website are for identification purposes only. Inspired by discussions with a number of nurse philosophers at the 2008 Knowledge Conference in Boston, two of the original Manifesto authors and two colleagues discussed the need to explicate emancipatory knowing as it emerged from the Manifesto. Fundamental and significant questions are raised about the wrong actions and the moral rights related to care and treatment of illness and health promotion.