Conservation of biodiversity article. Global Conservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 2022-10-27
Conservation of biodiversity article Rating:
Biodiversity, or the variety of life on Earth, is essential for the functioning of ecosystems and the provision of goods and services that support human well-being. However, biodiversity is facing significant threats from human activities, such as habitat destruction, overuse of resources, pollution, and climate change. As a result, it is important to take action to conserve biodiversity, both for the sake of the species and ecosystems themselves and for the benefit of human society.
One of the key ways to conserve biodiversity is through the establishment of protected areas, such as national parks and nature reserves. These areas provide a safe haven for species to live and reproduce, helping to ensure their continued survival. In addition, protected areas can also serve as a source of inspiration and education for the public, helping to raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity and the need for its conservation.
Another important strategy for conserving biodiversity is sustainable resource use. This involves using natural resources in a way that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This can be achieved through a variety of measures, such as responsible fishing practices, sustainable forestry, and the use of renewable energy sources.
Climate change is another major threat to biodiversity, as it can lead to changes in temperature, precipitation, and other environmental conditions that can have significant impacts on species and ecosystems. To address this threat, it is important to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the impacts of climate change. This can include efforts to increase energy efficiency, promote the use of renewable energy sources, and protect forests and other natural carbon sinks.
In addition to these measures, it is also important to engage local communities in conservation efforts. Local people often have a strong connection to the natural environment and can play a crucial role in protecting biodiversity. By involving local communities in decision-making and providing them with the tools and resources they need to manage their own natural resources, it is possible to foster a sense of ownership and responsibility that can help to ensure the long-term conservation of biodiversity.
In conclusion, the conservation of biodiversity is essential for the health and well-being of both humans and the natural world. By taking action to protect and restore ecosystems, promote sustainable resource use, and address the impacts of climate change, we can help to ensure the continued survival and thriving of the diverse array of species that make up the fabric of life on Earth.
Global Conservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Continuous increases in population cause an increasing demand for resources. The people in this region traditionally lived in relatively isolated settlements separated by mountains. Biodiversity's Importance Biodiversity is extremely important to people and the health of ecosystems. The fundamental importance of these issues to humankind was paramount at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development UNCED held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. Every plant, animal, and fungus that has been cultivated by humans has been bred from original wild ancestor species into diverse varieties arising from the demands for food value, adaptation to growing conditions, and resistance to pests. Annual Review of Plant Biology, in press.
For example, both American woodcock Scolopax minor and cerulean warbler Dendroica cerulea may be assigned to mixed deciduous forest tracts although the two species respond very differently to stand age and common forest management practices; 6 Estimates of species richness are scale-dependent and common scales of assessment e. This crop diversity matched the cultural diversity of highly subdivided populations of humans. Lake Huron in its present form is only about 7,000 years old, while Lake Victoria in its present form is about 15,000 years old. We felt a deep connection with nature and its stunning diversity of life forms, and we were eager to accept and promulgate arguments about the value of biodiversity for human well-being. I believe the example of my PhD research is representative of a great many similar studies, in which value judgments entered into the very calculations whose results might then appear to justify the values. That subsequent research will produce the discoveries that make the species valuable to humans and to our ecosystems.
Species go extinct because of natural shifts in the environment that take place over long periods of time, such as ice ages. Habitat destruction and fragmentation, climate change, nutrient pollution, and nonnative species are bad, bad, bad, and bad. The forests of Maine differ from the forests of Colorado by the types of species found in both ecosystems, as well as the temperature and rainfall. This assumption is usually unwarranted. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. On the other hand, abundant species are generally better known ecologically, and in some cases, individual abundant species will regulate ecosystem functioning.
Spot illustrations by Bethann G. Catharanthus roseus, the Madagascar periwinkle, has various medicinal properties. This fact is called the biodiversity conservation paradox. Pesticides control these competitors, but these are costly and lose their effectiveness over time as pest populations adapt. Furthermore, any change in ecosystem function and services seems likely to have resulted more from plowing, leaving the field fallow each year, and the growth of annuals instead of century-old trees, than from a change in biodiversity. Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems. Over the past five years, individual studies like these have been synthesized in several large meta-analyses.
Since the term biodiversity became widespread only in the late 1980s, ecologists have also been busy with the more mundane task of developing and calculating old and new indices to quantify it. They occur within ecosystems, such as soil ecosystems, as a result of the diverse metabolic activities of the organisms living there, but they provide benefits to human food production, drinking water availability, and breathable air. If biodiversity is pushed down, Mother Nature often pushes back. One of the oldest observed patterns in ecology is that biodiversity typically increases as latitude declines. Active restoration requires various degrees of human intervention, depending on the degree of disturbance, while passive restoration only requires removal of the stresses that caused the initial disturbance, such as grazing or pollution, followed by natural recovery processes. Data for the graphs are from Vellend et al. Even if biodiversity loss is found not in itself to be a major cause of compromised ecosystem services, there are plenty of serious ecological threats.
For many studies to date, information on constraints has been less-widely quantified although perhaps because less effort has been invested. A similar pattern is observed for most taxonomic groups. Human activities are not always to the detriment of biodiversity: Sometimes they are for example, conversion of forest to crops , but sometimes they are not for example, nonnative species doubling the numbers of plant species in New Zealand and on other islands. Although it is sometimes difficult to predict which species will become extinct, many are listed as endangered at great risk of extinction. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem function—not in every single experiment, but in most.
Wilson were codified in conservation biology textbooks, leaving no room for questions about whether biodiversity was good and whether human activities were bad for its maintenance. Because environmentalists and the public have become increasingly aware of these threats, preventive ecosystem protection has become an essential component of NRM. In individual states or drainage basins in the United States considered mainland areas, rather than islands , changes in species richness have been in the same direction, but of lower magnitude: no net change for birds, and a 20 percent increase for both plants and fishes, on average see the figure just above. Species diversity: From global decreases to local increases. Other pollinators include a diverse array of other bee species and various insects and birds. This artifact will increase the apparent overall ESV of the former relative to the latter. New York: Springer Netherlands.
It is also useful to define ecosystem diversity: the number of different ecosystems on Earth or in a geographical area. As a consequence, their soils are now being depleted unless they are maintained artificially at great expense. Fishing can alter inherited characteristics of a population in two ways: 1 by applying a selective pressure that kills individuals based on certain traits, such as size or age; and 2 by applying a random pressure so intense that the population is depleted low enough to lose genes from the pool. For the most part, these values are outside the realm of science, except in the sense that we might quantify how many people share such values. A comparison of active and passive restoration. That includes 29 percent of all Sources International Union for Conservation of Nature Comparing and Graphing Nine Environmental Threats, Researchers Find Unexpected Evils, Popular Science Encyclopedia of Earth: Biodiversity World of Biology. In dense grassland, plants are closely intertwined, separated one to the next by centimeters rather than meters, if they are separated at all.
Average sizes of many US Southeast species declined about 75% between the early 1970s and the mid-1980s: red porgies went from 2. It is estimated that, at one time, 25 percent of modern drugs contained at least one plant extract. In this case, however, the causal link from biodiversity to ecosystem function involves small-scale interactions among plants, and so study plots are of an entirely appropriate scale. Short of deliberately simplifying an ecosystem via the creation of a corn field or a strip mall, anthropogenically driven environmental change can push local and regional biodiversity in either direction. Carl Safina, Alan Duckworth, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Second Edition , 2013 Genetic Diversity within Species Conservation of biodiversity is virtually never an official management goal in fisheries. The basic form of the problem is one of optimizing the number of valued components of biodiversity usually species represented within a set of areas whether these are to be protected or not , subject to constraints including species viability, threat, and cost. To accurately translate the results of experiments that test how biodiversity affects specific ecosystem functions into real-world implications, ecologists first must test the widespread assumption that local biodiversity is indeed declining see the figure at right.