Endocrine glands are organs that produce and secrete hormones, which are chemical substances that help to regulate the functions of cells and organs in the body. These glands are an important part of the endocrine system, which is a system of glands that work together to regulate the body's metabolism, growth and development, and responses to stress and injury.
There are several endocrine glands in the human body, including the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, and gonads (testes and ovaries). Each of these glands has a specific function, and together they help to regulate a wide range of processes in the body.
The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain. It is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls the function of many other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland produces hormones that regulate growth and development, metabolism, and reproductive function.
The thyroid gland is located in the neck and produces hormones that regulate the body's metabolism. The parathyroid gland, also located in the neck, produces hormones that help to regulate the level of calcium in the blood.
The adrenal gland, located on top of the kidneys, produces hormones that are involved in the body's response to stress. The pancreas, located in the abdomen, produces hormones that help to regulate blood sugar levels.
The gonads, which include the testes in males and the ovaries in females, produce hormones that are involved in reproductive function. The testes produce testosterone, which is involved in male sexual development, and the ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, which are involved in female sexual development and the menstrual cycle.
In summary, the endocrine glands are a vital part of the body's endocrine system and play an important role in regulating many of the body's functions. They produce and secrete hormones that help to maintain homeostasis, or balance, in the body, and are essential for maintaining good health.
Endocrine Glands of Fishes
The Some endocrine glands also have non-endocrine functions. This hormone affects sperm production, muscle strength and sex drive. The thyroid glands in sharks and higher teleosts are diffused in nature. Neurohypophysis : The neurohypophysis occupies considerable portion of the gland and possesses many interesting and distinctive features. It plays a role in digesting food, but it also makes hormones. In many teleosts, unlike mammals, neurosecretory stimuli may pass along the nerve fibres piercing the laminae that separates the neuro from adenohypophysis, and penetrating into the endocrine parenchyma of pars distalis Ball, 1981.
Your endocrine system is made up of several organs called glands. Behind, but attached to, the thyroid gland are 4 tiny glands called the parathyroids. It secretes hormones that are collectively called thyroid hormones. The different hormones secreting cell are not localized in specific region but are spread over in part of the adenohypophysis Fig. Blood Supply in Pituitary Glands: Vascularization of the pituitary has been studied in variety of species.
Hormones of Hypothalamus The pituitary gland and hypothalamus collaborate to regulate hormone production in order to maintain homeostasis. They are filled with secretory granules. The secretion of prolactin from the teleost pituitary is under an inhibitory neuroendocrine control of hypothalamic origin. Illustration of the Endocrine System. The smaller, posterior lobe stores hormones, but does not synthesize any.
Endocrine System: What Is It, Functions, Organs & Conditions
Within the Body The The pancreas is another endocrine gland that releases insulin in the body, which importantly allows for sugar in the blood to be metabolized. Endocrine glands of increasing complexities are found in cyclostomes, elasmobranchs and osteichthyes. The endocrine system is made up of organs called glands. Adrenal Cortical Tissue or Inter-Renal Tissue : Location: In Lamprey Cyclostomata the endocrine inter-renal cells are present throughout the body cavity close to the post-cardinal vein. The stalked pituitary is found in Barbus stigma and Xiphophorus maculatus. The endocrine system will regulate our metabolic processes, our appetite, our growth, and even our sleeping patterns.
Among the rays they lie in more or less close association with posterior kidney tissue, including some species possessing inter-renal tissue concentrated near the left and in other near the right central border of that organ. As a result, more fluid is squeezed into a smaller space, and blood pressure rises. This imbalance can cause health problems, such as weight gain, high blood pressure and changes in sleep, mood and behavior. Histology of the Thyroid Gland: In teleosts, histologically the thyroid gland consists of a large number of follicles, lymph sinuses, venules and connective tissues. Ovaries A female's ovaries are located on both sides of the uterus, below the opening of the fallopian tubes which extend from the uterus to the ovaries. In Heteropneustes the thyroid gland is an unpaired thin- walled brownish but cylindrical in shape.
. This indicates that there must be a similar hormone in fishes also. The other part of the pancreas, the endocrine pancreas, secretes hormones called insulin and What is Pancreatitis? Recently, prostaglandin, which is hormone-like substance has been isolated from testis and semen of bluefin tuna, Thynnus thynnus and flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The thyroid surrounds anterior and middle parts of first, second and sometimes third afferent branchial arteries of ventral aorta, as found in Ophiocephalus species Fig. Secretin affects flow of enzyme carrying liquids from the pancreas, whereas pancreozymin accelerates flow of zymogens. Usually in cyclostomes it is smaller but increases in bony fishes, with prominence in groove or depression of para-sphenoid bone receiving the gland.
Location of Pituitary Glands: The pituitary gland is located below the diencephalon hypothalamus , behind the optic chiasma and anterior to saccus vasculosus, and is attached to the diencephalon by a stalk or infundibulum Fig. It has been considered that these anterior loops are the rudiment of the hypothalamohypophysial portal system. Pituitary Gland Smaller than a pea, the pituitary gland is situated underneath the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The Sex Glands as Endocrine Organs : The sex hormones are synthesized and secreted by specialized cells of the ovaries and testis. There is little information about the influence of gonadial hormones on the reproductive behaviour of fish. Functions of Endocrine Gland The level of hormones in your blood is regularly monitored by your endocrine system.
Insulin Insulin is a hormone, produced by the pancreas, that reduces the amount of sugar in the blood. Endocrine glands themselves will inherently be able to make, secrete, and store hormones for future use. Axon terminals of these cells assemble at the ventral side of the region and form urophysis with blood capillaries. Such situation is found in Cyprinoide. Several histological investigations demonstrate a stimulation of the pars intermedia associated with reproduction. In Carassius auratus the number of PbH +ve cells increases after spawning in both number and activity during oogenesis and breeding season.