Nuclear non proliferation treaty india. List of parties to the Treaty on the Non 2022-11-15
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The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is an international treaty that aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The treaty was signed in 1968 and came into force in 1970. It has 190 state parties, including India.
India has had a controversial relationship with the NPT. When the treaty was first signed, India abstained from becoming a party, arguing that it discriminated against non-nuclear weapon states and did not address the disarmament of existing nuclear powers. Despite this, India supported the treaty's overall goals and participated in its review conferences as a non-party.
In 1998, India conducted a series of nuclear tests, which led to widespread international condemnation and economic sanctions. As a result, India's position on the NPT became even more controversial. The Indian government argued that the tests were necessary for its national security and that it had the right to pursue nuclear weapons as a deterrent.
In the years since the tests, India has made efforts to improve its relations with the international community and has taken steps to demonstrate its commitment to non-proliferation. It has signed several bilateral and regional agreements on nuclear cooperation, including with the United States, France, and Russia. It has also signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR).
Despite these efforts, India's status as a non-party to the NPT has remained a point of contention. Some argue that India should join the treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state, while others argue that it should be recognized as a nuclear weapon state.
Overall, the NPT has played a crucial role in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons and promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. While India's relationship with the treaty has been complex, it has demonstrated a commitment to non-proliferation and has taken steps to cooperate with the international community in this regard.
Should India Join the NPT?
Retrieved 6 March 2013. Nuclear Arms Control is responsible for the control of the development, testing, production, and use of nuclear weapons. Retrieved 20 January 2011. North Korea joined in 1985 but announced its withdrawal in 2003. China contrast China started its nuclear power program in the 1970s and the industry then moved to a steady development period. Nuclear Disarmament is a highly debated and advocated issue of the current era.
Both the nations had agreed and acquired an interest in indulging in negotiations about agreements for establishing control on the arms race and limiting competition concerning strategic weapon development, given the exorbitant costs involved in the development of nuclear power and the continuing arms race. This exception is further strengthened by the IAEA-India Safeguards agreement. These instances, in turn, led to the interest of nations worldwide in formulating a nuclear non-proliferation treaty for helping prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Now, in the face of the cold war, the United States of America and the Soviet Union along with the United Kingdom were the only states to have tested their nuclear power till that time and therefore understood the essentiality and true importance of effectuating disarmament of nuclear weapons for saving the world from witnessing another catastrophe. Â Conclusion The Treaty, a foundation of the global nuclear non-proliferation initiative has been used to build confidence among state parties.
Retrieved 6 April 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2008. Although it calls for nuclear disarmament, no fixed timelines have been mentioned. In Washington, a Senate Democratic aide said that such a delay was not that unusual because legislation needed to be carefully reviewed before being sent to the White House. So far 190 countries have joined the treaty, Finland was the first country to sign. Archived from the original on 13 October 2009. The Act was passed by an overwhelming 359—68 in the The House version In response to the language Congress used in the Act to define U.
The final treaty consisted of several provisions from controlling the escalation of technology related to nuclear weapons. The NPT process was launched by The treaty provided, in article X, for a conference to be convened 25 years after its entry into force to decide whether the treaty should continue in force indefinitely, or be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Retrieved 24 October 2015. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. All other rights, including commercial rights, are reserved to the author. Retrieved 25 October 2020. India argues that China, which went to war with India in 1962, has nuclear weapons pointed at it, making it impossible to sign a treaty that would disarm India unilaterally.
It also establishes the duration of the Treaty 25 years before 1995 Extension Initiative. The deal was to be inked by Indian External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee and U. After Senate approval, US President George W. After several deals and negotiations, the treaty was signed, and even developing and underdeveloped nations became a part of it. In 1993, North Korea gave notice to withdraw from the NPT.
Director of Central Intelligence, Likelihood and Consequences of the Development of Nuclear Capabilities by Additional Countries, declassified U. New Zealand, which is a member of the NSG but not of the IAEA Board of Governors, cautioned that its support should not be taken for granted. India's civil nuclear strategy has been directed towards complete independence in the nuclear fuel cycle, necessary because it is excluded from the 1970 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty NPT due to it acquiring nuclear weapons capability after 1970. The New York Times. But with time this lost relevance as peaceful nuclear explosions were reduced. Retrieved May 5, 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
Retrieved 4 May 2006. Azhar, After the end of World War II, the world got involved into an armed race of producing nuclear weapons. Not being a signatory as a non-nuclear weapon state is somewhere a boon for the country as how could India after being surrounded by a nuclear superpower country China and Pakistan weaponised with nuclear power voluntarily give up one facet of protection and safeguard. This location is noted by: L for London, M for Moscow, and W for Washington D. When the 2006 agreement was reached, India had 15 operating nuclear power reactors plus eight more under construction, one of them a fast-breeder reactor. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
Arabian Peninsula countries included Saudi Arabia and Bahrain in 1988, Qatar and Kuwait in 1989, UAE in 1995, and Oman in 1997. Retrieved June 1, 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2020. Read about There are various other international treaties that are being signed by the representatives across the world for the reduction in the use of nuclear weapons and equipment. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
The Working Group on an Expanded Non- Proliferation System set out to answer the question, "What would be necessary to have India and the United States work together as active participants in the international non-proliferation system? Retrieved October 2, 2008. Four UN member states never joined NPT: India, Pakistan, Israel, South Sudan. According to Thomas Reed and Danny Stillman, the "NPT has one giant loophole": Article IV gives each non-nuclear weapon state the "inalienable right" to pursue nuclear energy for the generation of power. In effect, the aim has been to put it on much the same basis as China with safeguards and access to trade. . Retrieved 30 April 2013.