# Phase diagram of three component system lab report. UKM PHYSICOCHEMISTRY LAB REPORT: Practical 3: Phase Diagram (Part A) 2022-10-28

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A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the thermodynamic behavior of a material, typically a solid, liquid, or gas. In a three component system, the phase diagram indicates the conditions under which the three components are present in different phases, such as solid, liquid, or gas. The phase diagram is an important tool for understanding the behavior of a material and predicting its behavior under different conditions, such as temperature and pressure.

In a lab setting, a phase diagram of a three component system can be generated by conducting experiments at different temperatures and pressures. These experiments involve measuring the amount of each component present in each phase, as well as the overall composition of the mixture. For example, if the three components are water, ethanol, and methanol, the phase diagram might indicate the conditions under which each component is present as a liquid or a gas, as well as the overall composition of the mixture.

To create a phase diagram, data from these experiments is plotted on a graph with temperature on the x-axis and pressure on the y-axis. The resulting graph is divided into regions, each of which represents a different phase of the material. For example, one region might represent the solid phase, while another represents the liquid phase. The boundary between these regions is known as the phase boundary, and it represents the conditions under which the material changes from one phase to another.

In addition to the phase boundaries, the phase diagram may also include lines known as "tie lines," which connect the points on the diagram where the composition of the mixture is the same. These lines are useful for understanding how the composition of the mixture changes as the temperature and pressure are varied.

Overall, the phase diagram of a three component system is a valuable tool for understanding the behavior of materials and predicting their behavior under different conditions. By conducting experiments and plotting the data on a phase diagram, scientists and engineers can gain insight into the thermodynamic properties of materials and use this knowledge to design and optimize processes and products.

## Lab Report: Practical 3: Phase Diagram Part A So, Gibbs proposed a triangular coordinate system to accommodate all variables involved. In conclusion , the objectives of the experiment are achieved. The diagram obtained is a phase diagram for a two components condensed system having one liquid phase. If we were to pour a little of an immiscible liquid into a test tube containing water we would see that it forms a thin layer above the water. Other liquids don't mix at all. Liquids tend to be immiscible when attractions between like molecules are much stronger than attractions between mixed pairs.

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## THREE COMPONENT complianceportal.american.edu The solution was placed in a separating funnel and separated. Triangular diagram is very convenient in determining the compositions of three components as each corner of the triangular diagram represents a pure component, which is 100% A, 100% B, 100% C. This is shown in the triple phase diagram that has been plotted on the triangular diagram. Having higher percentage of toluene in the mixture than ethanol, little water is needed to disrupt the homogeneity. Phenol also known as carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, and phenyl alcohol is produced at the rate of millions of tons per year, mostly from isopropylbenzene. Water was continuously added in 5mL aliquots and titrating to the turbid point with acetic acid until a total of 30mL water was added. Besides the volatility of the chemicals also leads to the error.

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## PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DRUG: EXPERIMENT: PHASE DIAGRAM OF TWO COMPONENTS SYSTEM If the foreign substances are soluble in both liquid, it is called as blending. This may result in slight dilution of the mixture. By dividing each line into 100 equal units, the location of a point along the line can be directly related to the per cent concentration of one component in a two-component system. Addition of foreign substances such as salt can affect the critical temperature and the phase separation. In going along a line bounding the triangle so as to represent the concentration in a two-component system, it does not matter whether we proceed in a clockwise or counter clockwise direction around the triangle, provided we are consistent.

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## EXPERIMENT 2: TWO COMPONENT SYSTEM PHASE DIAGRAM The actual ternary diagram may be represented as a three dimensional form or more commonly as a two dimensional projection of the liquids surface onto the base of the triangle created when the three binary diagrams are joined together. These lines intercept with each other at K, which definitely contains 20% A, 50% B as well as 30% C. Toluene is soluble in ethanol while it is not soluble with water. We also know that H2O is commonly found in all three of the different forms of matter: ice as the solid, water as the liquid, and steam as the gas. The flask was covered with a Parafilm and a burette containing 1-butanol was poked through the parafilm. But different proportion of mixture of phenol and water required the solution to be heated to different temperature in order to make them miscible. These were then plotted on a triangular graph paper.

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## PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DRUG: EXPERIMENT: PHASE DIAGRAM FOR THREE COMPONENTS SYSTEM The points were plotted onto a triangular paper to give a triple phase diagram at the recorded temperature. I wonder what a graph of the changing temperatures over time between the phases would look like. To accomplish that, fill a capillary tube with crystals about 3 mm high by placing the capillary tube open end down into the sample powder and tapping it to get the crystals into the tube. As having higher percentage of toluene in the mixture than ethanol, little water is needed to disrupt the homogeneity, water and toluene will form two-phase system because they are only slightly miscible. Intuitively, having more than two components poses a problem when a pictorial representation is desired.

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## Lab Report: Practical 3: Phase Diagram Part B Following the basis of describing the effect of intensive variable to various phase in a system at equilibrium, which is the phase rule, it is determine d that this system have 4 degrees of freedom. Experimental procedure Part 1 A volume of 20mL of water was placed in a 100mL Erlenmeyer flask. However, ethanol is completely miscible with both water and toluene, therefore it is expected to act as a surfactant and the increased concentration of ethanol in the partially miscible, two-phase system of toluene and water would eventually produce a single-phase where all 3 liquid are miscible. Besides, the conical flask must be shaked well after each addition of water. Butanol was added to the water drop by drop with continuous stirring until the turbidity appeared in the mixture and remained for at least 5min.

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## PHASE DIAGRAM OF A THREE COMPONENT complianceportal.american.edu The basic rule is liquids with similar molecular structures, in particular similar polarity, will likely dissolve in each other. To differentiate within the two-phase region and single-phase region in the ternary diagram, pressure and temperature must be fixed. When three of the components are mixed at a correct ratio, homogeneous mixture can be formed even though toluene is actually partially miscible in water. Lastly, Phase Rule are used to relate to the use of triangular coordinates to know the mutual solubility of liquids in a two phase system. The bounded region is actually between the binomial curve and line of water and toluene mixture. The heavy and medium components are placed at the left hand corner B and right hand corner C , respectively.

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## [Lab Report] Ternary Phase complianceportal.american.edu Addition of water to the mixture of ethanol and toluene increases the mutual solubility of the liquid pair until at one point the mixture become homogenous. The volume of water required for turbidity was then recorded. The addition of sufficient amount of ethanol to the toluene-water system is able to produce a single liquid phase in which all the three components are miscible and the mixture is homogeneous. Since we are concerned with determining the composition, the rule to follow states that from any point within the given equilateral triangle, the sum of the distances perpendicular to each side is equal to the height of the triangle. Its upper consolute temperature is lowered and lower consolute temperature is raised. The region under the graph shows that there are two phase system form which consist of water and toluene since the solubility of water with toluene is weaker than that with ethanol. The average specific heat of the unknown metal was 0.

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## PHYSICAL PHARMACY LAB REPORT(12/13): PRACTICAL 1 : PHASE DIAGRAMS This experiment is carried out by first making a solution of ethanol and toluene which will be completely miscible and addition of water where at first it will make up two phase. There will be different envelopes binodal curves at different pressures and temperatures. This contribute to an excess amount or insufficient amount of water. By fixing the temperature at room temperature and the pressure at 1 atm, o nly the concentration of two out of three components are required to define the system at equilibrium as the concentration of the third component can be known by subtracting the concentration of the first two components given from the total concentration. Hence, a clear single liquid phase of solution is formed. All systems prepared on a tie line, at equilibrium will separate into phases of constant composition.

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