Political democracy and economic development in india. PSCI212 2022-10-28
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Political democracy and economic development are two concepts that are often closely intertwined, and this is certainly the case in India. India is the world's largest democracy, with a population of over 1.3 billion people. It has a federal parliamentary democratic republic government, in which the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
Since its independence in 1947, India has made significant progress in terms of political democracy. It has a robust system of checks and balances, with a separation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There are regular elections at the national and state level, and citizens have the right to vote and participate in the political process. There have been several periods of political instability and conflict in India's history, but overall the country has a strong track record of peaceful transitions of power.
However, while India has made significant progress in terms of political democracy, the same cannot be said for its economic development. Despite being home to a large and rapidly growing economy, India still faces significant challenges in terms of poverty, inequality, and underdevelopment. According to the World Bank, over 22% of the country's population lived below the poverty line in 2019, and there are significant disparities in terms of access to education, healthcare, and other basic services.
There are several factors that contribute to India's economic challenges. One of the main issues is the country's high population density, which puts pressure on its limited resources and infrastructure. Another factor is the widespread corruption and bureaucracy that hinder economic development and investment. The government has implemented various initiatives to address these issues, such as the Make in India campaign, which aims to increase the country's manufacturing sector, and the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which focuses on improving sanitation and cleanliness.
Despite these challenges, India has made significant progress in terms of economic development in recent years. Its economy has grown at an average rate of around 6% per year since the early 1990s, and it is now the world's fifth largest economy by nominal GDP. The country has also made significant progress in areas such as healthcare and education, with initiatives such as the Right to Education Act and the National Health Mission.
Overall, it is clear that India has made significant progress in terms of political democracy, but there is still a long way to go in terms of economic development. While the country has made progress in recent years, it still faces significant challenges in terms of poverty, inequality, and underdevelopment. However, with continued efforts by the government and other stakeholders, it is possible that India will continue to make progress in these areas in the future.
This establishes a clear link between how a political system affects the growth oath of a country. These can range from foreign policy interests to efficiency and effectiveness arguments to ensure a return on aid investments. Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Growth. In India, however, there was the ubiquitous private system that worked on profits and revenues, which means that investment was a result and a corollary of growth. This environment cannot support a dynamic economy. A study of the political revolution in India in 1947 and the political, social, and economic changes that have followed.
(PDF) Democracy and Development in India socialsciences
With more and more new groups asserting themselves, the earlier neat and tidy management of power is no longer possible. How can we best measure poverty, and what have been the challenges to reducing it in the developing world? Through policies that consistently choose to represent economic interests even at the cost of constitutional rights, the democratic Indian State is losing its credibility. In India the media generally addresses the upper class and educated middleclass, as the vast majority of the poor and most marginalized are illiterate. But when oil wealth dwindles, it opens fissures because people cannot meet the expectations they have had from the state. Economic development leading to democracy? State autonomy describes the fact of pursuing developmentalist policies while being isolated from external or internal pressures stemming from other countries, firms or citizens that may urge the country to redistribute wealth or take steps toward democratic reforms. However, as a whole, the empirical evidence directly linking democracy and economic growth is ambiguous, at best.
Donor agencies have paid some attention to the empirical relationship between governance and aid effectiveness. While greatest stress is on the economy, the author also aims to determine the relationship between the political and economic changes, particularly in the policy field where the relationship is closest. The latter was expected to bring economic equality and prosperity to all, instead, only some groups of Indian citizens have benefited, and this casts a pall of gloom over the celebration of Indian democracy. The effects, where they are demonstrated, appear to be more subtle and indirect. Democracy The popular media and journalistic accounts of Indian society and politics post 1990s presents a picture of India that is marching ahead thanks to the advantage of English language education combined with spread of computer literacy and technology.
India’s Unlikely Democracy: Economic Growth and Political Accommodation
What really makes a country successful, however, is its adaptation to the systemic needs at different times. Democracy entails a pressure for immediate consumption which reduces investments, hence hindering economic growth Democracy may also hinder economic development since it entails a pressure for immediate consumption that reduces investments, which is necessary for economic development, as put by Vaman Rao in 1974. This tension can be employed creatively to further transform India in a democratic direction. In that lies the challenge for Indian politics Kaviraj 1996. It incentivizes politicians to undertake short-term measures, not promoting sustainable economic development. In the countryside, production ground to a halt, and donors handed out food to stave off hunger. African political elites, determined to maintain power at any cost, have constricted the private economy and middle classes and created disequilibria in markets, clientelism, fiscal crises and foreign debt.
A historical approach is required. This may be moaned as the decline of the norms and conventional protocols of democracy, or it can be understood as the result of political empowerment in a society that has experienced the most rigorous forms of oppression and hierarchy over centuries. Simultaneously, the poor are divided and seek redress through electoral and democratic channels. The direction that democracy in India is taking is inclusionary, satisfied with the creation of new categories of citizenship with special provisions for employment and education in government institutions. This last finding suggests that the effect of democracy on growth is negative at low levels of democracy, positive at high levels of democracy and not significant at middle levels of democracy using the Freedom House scales of civil and political liberties.
Economic Development and Political Democracy: Interaction of Economics and Politics in Independent India on JSTOR
Edited 2001 Democracy in India. From the 1990s, many social movements are questioning the merit of a development strategy that leaves thousands of Indian citizens displaced and distressed. The current phase, it is concluded, is characterised by an absence of consensus and a presence of… Expand. Protection of contracts and property rights Democracy is well suited to entail economic development thanks to contract protection and property rights. Democracy makes conflict resolution more likely and thus makes the polity less volatile and more stable, creating a more positive environment for development. Democracy and Development: Political Regimes and Economic Performance, 1950-1980. The retreat of the state from the economy over the last two decades has however hurt the poorest the hardest.
But I think that what matters the most is the economic vision and policies of the ruling class. These town and village enterprises were controlled stringently by local authorities. Thus, while formal democratic structures and practices are in place, economic exclusion from the market to varying degrees makes the substantive experience of democracy rather limited. This is reflected in particular in the growing expenditure on technical assistance to encourage democratic development. Public participation and scrutiny of state policy may avert planning disasters. The state, with its mechanisms of electoral democracy, becomes the field for the political negotiation of demands for the transfer of resources, through fiscal and other means, from the accumulation economy to programmes aimed at providing the livelihood needs of the poor.
Economic Development and Democracy: how one affects the other
Dollar, David, and Paul Collier. The political elites had enormous opportunities to enrich themselves, and officials had considerable discretion to interpret regulations. The evidence suggests that there is no iron law or unambiguous causality linking democracy to high economic performance. A more nuanced argument, based on some empirical evidence, suggests that pressures for democratic development are the outcome of modernization and the market. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. An autocrat has an encompassing interest in the economic development of his country.
Governance, Democracy and Economic Adjustment in India: Conceptual and Empirical Problems on JSTOR
The process of economic development is situated in the wider context of political democracy to explore the interaction between economics and politics in independent India. The two five-year plans, undertaken on the Nehru-Mahalanobis model, gave India its largest transition of the 20th century, as estimated by economists Hatekar and Dogre. The cruel-choice school argues that democracies will dare not impose unpopular measures to increase investment. By the 1990s, development theorists and donor agencies were beginning to argue that political openness and respect for human rights must accompany, not lag behind, economic growth. In this regard, a plethora of counteractive measures adopted by anti and pro-dictatorship forces as they respond to the challenges posed by New Media are also considered. Copy to Clipboard Reference Copied to Clipboard. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
As a matter of fact, since the end of the … receive foreign financial help By the same token, in order to receive foreign financial aid, a country ought to meet democratic criteria and pledge to invest in public and long-term development programs. Indeed, revolutions demanding democracy can occur because of a lack of economic development like in Tunisia during the Arab Spring. Its economy shrank by 13 percent in 1998, more than any other in the region. He opens his argument by stating that there is an inevitability of tension between the economics of markets and the politics of democracy. Gandhi reinvented the Nehruvian vision maintaining the rhetoric of socialism but changing the content.