Potential economic risk to a research subject. Protecting Human Research quizzes Flashcards 2022-10-28
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The Men Who Built America is a miniseries that aired on the History Channel in 2012. The series chronicles the lives of several influential industrialists and businessmen who played a significant role in shaping the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These men, including Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Henry Ford, J.P. Morgan, and Cornelius Vanderbilt, were responsible for building some of the largest and most successful businesses in American history.
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist and philanthropist who made his fortune in the steel industry. He was born in Scotland in 1835 and immigrated to the United States with his family when he was a child. Carnegie began his career as a telegrapher and eventually worked his way up to become a manager at the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. He used this experience and his business savvy to eventually start his own steel company, Carnegie Steel. Carnegie's company revolutionized the steel industry by using new technologies and business practices to produce steel more efficiently and at a lower cost. Carnegie became one of the wealthiest men in the world as a result of his successful business ventures, and he used his wealth to fund numerous charitable causes, including the construction of public libraries and the establishment of peace institutes.
John D. Rockefeller was another influential industrialist who made his fortune in the oil industry. He was born in New York in 1839 and began his career as a bookkeeper before eventually starting his own business, Standard Oil. Rockefeller's company quickly became the dominant player in the oil industry, and he used his wealth and influence to expand his business interests into other sectors, including railroads and finance. Rockefeller was known for his ruthless business tactics, which included using his economic power to eliminate competition and drive down prices. Despite this, he was also a philanthropist who used his wealth to fund numerous charitable causes, including the establishment of the University of Chicago and the establishment of the Rockefeller Foundation, which is still active today.
Henry Ford was an American industrialist and founder of the Ford Motor Company. He was born in Michigan in 1863 and began his career as a machinist and engineer. In 1903, Ford founded the Ford Motor Company and introduced the Model T, which was the first affordable automobile for the average person. Ford's innovative use of the assembly line to mass-produce automobiles revolutionized the industry and made him one of the wealthiest men in the world. In addition to his business success, Ford was also a vocal pacifist and supported numerous causes related to peace and social justice.
J.P. Morgan was an American financier and banker who played a significant role in the development of the modern financial system. He was born in New York in 1837 and began his career as a clerk at a brokerage firm before eventually starting his own business. Morgan's financial expertise and connections helped him become one of the most powerful bankers in the United States, and he played a key role in financing numerous major business ventures, including the construction of the transcontinental railroad and the creation of several large corporations. Morgan was also a philanthropist who used his wealth to fund numerous charitable causes, including the establishment of the Morgan Library and Museum in New York City.
Cornelius Vanderbilt was an American businessman and philanthropist who made his fortune in the transportation industry. He was born on Staten Island, New York in 1794 and began his career as a ferry operator before eventually expanding his business interests to include railroads and steamboats. Vanderbilt's transportation empire made him one of the wealthiest men in the world, and he used his wealth to fund numerous charitable causes, including the establishment of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.
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Participating in a Research Study
It is important that you develop an appropriate consent process which involves not only informing the participant at the beginning of the study but continuing to monitor their progress, allowing for withdrawal at any point, and an informative debriefing period after the study. You may need to consider exclusion criteria as well i. Areas of particular sensitivity are information regarding alcohol or drug abuse, mental illness, illegal activities, and sexual behavior. As a unit these offices and committees function as a 'Human Research Protection Program', one that is accredited through the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs. To qualify, research must fall into 8 federally-defined exempt categories.
The possibility of psychological harm is heightened when behavioral research involves an element of deception. Risks to subjects who participate in research should be justified by the anticipated benefits to the subject or society. Research studies are done to discover new information or to answer a question about how we learn, behave and function with the end-goal of benefitting society. To prevent this from happening, she should instruct her participants to not share this information with her during the consent process and then remind the participant if the subject comes up. Investigators must obtain informed consent if the study involves interactions with research participants. In addition, if an investigator wishes to use data for a purpose other than the one for which it was originally collected and the data are still identifiable e. Privacy Risks: Loss of privacy in the research context usually involves either covert observation or participant observation of behavior that the subjects consider private.
This process is called informed consent and is described further here. This might include assigning a code to the information collected instead of using your name or other identifiable information, and storing the information in a secure manner. Please see When you are studying an individual, it is important to consider their social situation and how they function in it. Stress and feelings of guilt or embarrassment may arise simply from thinking or talking about one's own behavior or attitudes on sensitive topics such as drug use, sexual preferences, selfishness, and violence. This may happen if the study is no longer in your best interest, if you can no longer complete study activities, or if the study ends early for some other reason. Unforeseen physical harm that is possible from participation in therapeutic research. Investigators must obtain informed consent if the study involves interventions with research participants.
Risk: The probability of harm or injury physical, psychological, social, or economic occurring as a result of participation in a research study. Loss of privacy concerns access to private information about a person or to a person's body or behavior without consent; confidentiality of data concerns safeguarding information that has been given voluntarily by one person to another. Before you can start the study, you need to agree to participate i. Please see Perceived legal risks may be an additional hurdle in working with various communities. Confidentiality safeguards must be strong in these instances. However, it is important to recognize that a breach of confidentiality may result in psychological harm to individuals in the form of embarrassment, guilt, stress, and so forth or in social harm see below. Researchers should consider any costs participants would have to bear in order to participate in the study such as travel, child care, food, etc.
What elements should I consider in my risk and benefit analysis?
Note that in some cases, a researcher may decide to end your participation in the study early. Some medical research is designed only to measure more carefully the effects of therapeutic or diagnostic procedures applied in the course of caring for an illness. If you collect information about another individual, that information could be subpoenaed. These categories involve collection of samples and data in a manner that is not anonymous and that involves no more than minimal risk to subjects. Risks may be minimizedby appropriate eligibility criteria, measures to make study procedures as comfortable as possible, study-wide monitoring of safety and data integrity, good study design, plans to handle adverse effects, using research personnel who are qualified to perform their duties, and havingadequatelevels of supervision. Psychological Harms: Participation in research may result in undesired changes in thought processes and emotion e.
G. Potential Research Risks or Discomforts to Participants
As mentioned above, participating in a study may or may not be of direct benefit to you. The exempt registration process is much less rigorous than an expedited or full-committee review. These categories present the lowest amount of risk to potential subjects because, generally speaking, they involve either collection of anonymous or publicly-available data, or conduct of the least potentially-harmful research experiments. Before enrolling in a study, researchers may ask questions to determine if you are eligible to participate. More frequently, however, is the possibility of psychological harm when behavioral research involves an element of deception. You will also be given an opportunity to ask questions about the study. Potential risks fall into five broadly-defined categories.
On the other hand, research designed to evaluate new drugs or procedures may present more than minimal risk, and, on occasion, can cause serious or disabling injuries. The Research Subjects Review Board regularly works with several other offices, committees and workgroups within the University to carefully oversee research. The more sensitive the research material, the greater the care that must be exercised in obtaining, handling, and storing data. Identities of individual subjects must never be released without the express consent of the subject. Definitions Benefit: A helpful or good effect, something intended to help, promote or enhance well-being; an advantage. Most psychological risks are minimal or transitory, but some research has the potential for causing serious psychological harm.
Researchers are expected to take steps to minimize potential risks. The risks to which research subjects may be exposed have been classified as physical, psychological, social, and economic. Such research may not entail any significant risks beyond those presented by medically indicated interventions. For more information, see the below document. Sensory deprivation, sleep deprivation, use of hypnosis, deception or mental stresses are examples of psychological risks. Routine medical care is designed to improve the health of the person being cared for and the drugs, medical devices and procedures have already been proven to work.