Process of urbanization in india. Sociology: THE PROCESS OF URBANIZATION 2022-11-17
Process of urbanization in india
Urbanization in India has been a gradual process that has taken place over the past few centuries. It is the process by which a population moves from rural areas to urban areas, often seeking economic opportunities and a better quality of life. There are several factors that have contributed to the urbanization process in India, including economic growth, industrialization, and migration.
One of the main factors driving urbanization in India is economic growth. As the Indian economy has grown and developed, there have been more job opportunities available in urban areas. This has led to a migration of people from rural areas to cities in search of work. Industrialization has also played a role in this process. As more factories and industries have been established in urban areas, there has been an increase in the number of jobs available in these areas.
Migration has also contributed to the process of urbanization in India. As people move from rural areas to urban areas, they often bring their families with them. This has led to an increase in the population of cities, which has further fueled the process of urbanization.
The process of urbanization in India has had both positive and negative impacts on the country. On the positive side, urbanization has brought about economic growth and development, as well as increased access to education and healthcare. It has also led to the development of infrastructure, such as roads, airports, and public transportation systems.
However, urbanization has also led to problems such as overcrowding, pollution, and a lack of affordable housing. As more people move to urban areas, there is often not enough housing to accommodate them, leading to the development of slums and informal settlements. Pollution is also a major problem in many Indian cities, as the increased population and industrialization have led to an increase in air and water pollution.
Overall, the process of urbanization in India has had a significant impact on the country's economy and society. While it has brought about economic growth and development, it has also led to challenges such as overcrowding and pollution. It will be important for the government and other stakeholders to address these challenges in order to ensure that the benefits of urbanization are felt by all members of society.
Urbanization in India
Growing cities also alter the environment. Generally, higher caste people enjoy the urban benefits more than subaltern groupings in India. Sustained energy supply, and affordable serviced land are services that are essential for the development of the economy. A large part of rural-urban migration into smaller towns from their rural hinterland in backward states could, however, be explained in terms of push factors, owing to lack of diversification in agrarian economy. As a consequence, the dysfunctionality of the cities in the context of regional economy increased and this, in turn, generated serious socio-economic distortions, affecting their internal organization. Health expenditures are responsible for more than half of Indian households falling into poverty; the impact of this has been increasing pushing around 39 million Indians into poverty each year.
17.3E: The Process of Urbanization
It exists and grows on the strength of the economic activities existing within itself. It is the level and nature of economic activity in the city that generates growth and, therefore, further urbanization. Stage two refers to acceleration stage where basic restructuring of the economy and investments in social overhead capitals including transportation, communication take place. While in terms of ratio, there may not be a great shift from rural to urban activities, but there is still a large migration of population from rural areas to urban areas. Class I cities such as Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai etc have reached saturation level of employment generating capacity Kundu, 1997. The administrative or political factor often acts as an initial stimulus for urban growth; which is then further advanced by the growth of commercial and industrial activities. Indeed, the latter do not fall in line with the general pattern of urban growth in other size categories as they are governed by factors exogenous to the regional economy.
What is the process of urbanization?
Urbanization has helped in transforming the Indian economy by introducing Industries and Service sectors. Thus with the increase in the number of cities and towns the proportion of urban population to total population is also increasing. The social gradient in heath refers to the fact that inequalities in population health status are related to inequalities in social status. Lopsided and uncontrolled urbanization led to environmental degradation and degradation in the quality of urban life- pollution in sound, air, water, created by disposal of hazardous waste. This rapid expansion means more need of resources for residents.
URBANIZATION PROCESS, TRENDS & LEVEL OF URBANIZATION IN INDIA
As we can see in the table the number of cities in 1901 were 1,627 which increased almost four times that are 5,166 in 2001. Demographically, the focus is on the size and density of population and nature of work of the majority of the adult population. Global city Global city , an urban centre that enjoys significant competitive advantages and that serves as a hub within a globalized economic system. On the other hand, rural to urban migration poses a big challenge for developing cities due to migrant populations flocking in. Growth may be driven by sectors like construction, fuelling real estate bubbles that can threaten national and even regional economies. Megalopolis A megalopolis is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.
(PDF) URBANIZATION IN INDIA
This is evident from the fact love marriages, and cohabitation is common in urban centres. Also, large population pollutes the drainage and heavy waste is generated from cities which pollute the environment. It is a finite process--- a cycle through which a nation pass as they evolve from agrarian to industrial society Davis and Golden, 1954. The pace of urbanisation is fast if the industrial growth is fast. Living in overcrowded conditions affects the physiological conditions of a person.
Essay on Urbanization in India
Number of population residing in urban areas has increased from 2. The latest database of Numbeo lists three Indian cities among the top 10 cities of the world for having worst traffic conditions. The developed states attracted population in urban areas due to industrialization and infrastructural investment but this was largely in and around large cities and upcoming industrial centres. Sociologically, the focus is on heterogeneity, impersonality, interdependence and the quality of life in the society. This process of urbanization in India is shown in Fig 1.
Urbanization in India
Hence it is urbanization without urban functional characteristics. This problem of high population density is caused due to the heavy rate of migration from rural areas …. The gap, however, seems to have widened during 1991—01. As per the first simple method we observed that the total urban population in India in 1981 was a little less than one fourth of the total population in comparison to that of one-ninth in 1921 and one-sixth in 1951. The rural to urban migrations have been resulted due to many factors during the post independence period. Most of them have migrated to cities. Population growth and rapid urbanization are combining to create huge challenges for Indian cities.
(DOC) Process of Urbanisation in India: Some Salient Features
Finally, as a result of urbanisation, large scale migration takes place from rural to urban areas. Thus it is found from Table 6. The problems associated with urbanization are: High population density, inadequate infrastructure, lack of affordable housing, flooding, pollution, slum creation, crime, congestion and poverty. But when these child assert themselves, it generates conflict which sometimes results in honour-killing type of scenario. As in most countries, India's urban areas make a major contribution to the country's economy. Thus there is an increasing trend towards huge concentration of population in the bigger towns.
Urbanization In India
It reflects a gradual increasing trend of urbanization. Urbanization as a Socio-Cultural Process Cities are social artifacts and stands apart from the countryside, in terms of the higher degree of its acceptance of foreign and cross-cultural influences. These families are generally female house hold families. In India, a peculiar phenomenon is seen: industrial growth without a significant shift of population from agriculture to industry and of growth of urban population without a significant rise in the ratio of the urban to the total population. The rapid growth of cities like Chicago in the late nineteenth century and Mumbai a century later can be attributed largely to rural-urban migration.