Technological discontinuity. Technological discontinuities and organizational environments 2022-10-27
Ethnocentrism is the belief in the superiority of one's own culture and the corresponding tendency to judge other cultures by the standards of one's own. It can manifest in many different ways, and in the field of nursing, it can have serious consequences for patient care and outcomes.
One example of ethnocentrism in nursing is the belief that Western medical practices and approaches are the only valid ones. This can lead nurses to dismiss or disregard traditional healing practices and cultural beliefs of their patients, leading to a lack of cultural competency and sensitivity in care. For example, a nurse may refuse to allow a patient to use traditional herbs or remedies as part of their treatment plan, even if they have been shown to be effective in the patient's culture. This can lead to conflicts between the nurse and the patient, and may cause the patient to be less likely to trust and cooperate with the healthcare team.
Another example of ethnocentrism in nursing is the assumption that all patients speak English or are familiar with Western customs and practices. This can lead to misunderstandings and miscommunications, as well as feelings of frustration and isolation on the part of patients who do not speak English or who are not familiar with Western medical practices. For example, a nurse may assume that a patient understands their instructions or explanations, when in fact the patient is struggling to understand due to language barriers. This can result in misdiagnosis, inappropriate treatment, and negative outcomes for the patient.
Ethnocentrism can also manifest in subtle ways, such as the use of jargon or technical language that is not understood by patients from different cultural backgrounds. This can create barriers to communication and understanding, and can make it difficult for patients to fully participate in their own healthcare decisions.
To address ethnocentrism in nursing, it is important for nurses to recognize and challenge their own cultural biases and to work to become more culturally competent. This may involve learning about different cultural practices and beliefs, as well as working with interpreters and cultural brokers to facilitate communication and understanding. It is also important for nurses to be aware of the power dynamics that can exist between themselves and their patients, and to strive to be culturally sensitive and responsive in their care.
Overall, ethnocentrism in nursing can have serious consequences for patient care and outcomes. By recognizing and challenging their own cultural biases, nurses can work to become more culturally competent and provide high-quality, culturally sensitive care to their patients.
Technological discontinuities and the challenge for incumbent firms: Destruction, disruption or creative accumulation?
So we need strong reason to expect an intelligence-of-AGI feedback loop to be exceptional, beyond the observation of a potential feedback effect. Leadership, capabilities, and technological change: The transformation of NCR in the electronic era. Air Force imposed numerical control on the programmable machine-tool industry Noble, 1984. The concept of dominant design, then, brings technological evolution squarely into the social and organizational realm. So perhaps a natural place to find an AGI-related discontinuity is here. To enable products reaching customers quickly firms in this fluid phase may form alliances with each other in areas of sales, marketing etc. A firm was considered to have entered an industry when it sold its first minicomputer, barrel of cement, sheet of glass, or container.
Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments by Philip W Anderson, Michael Tushman :: SSRN
However, little effort has been made to present an overview of data analytics in TF and discuss its key features and contributions. Enough data were available to show all discontinuities in flat glass and all discontinuities in container glass through 1960. Research by David 1985, 1987 and Hughes 1983, 1987 in the typewriter, computer, and electric power product classes, Abernathy's 1978 work in the automobile industry, and Sahal's 1981 more general review of technological progress also described periods of technical variation that are closed by the emergence of dominant designs or industry standards. We investigate the extent to which these categories are already used within national technology foresight exercises. Quite apart from competition between tuning-fork, quartz, and mechanical escapement for watch oscillation, there was competition within each technical order between rival approaches Landes, 1983. In 2003 Renault a French car maker formed an alliance Nissan a Japanese car maker. Some discontinuous innovations are competence destroying, while others are competence enhancing.
Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: a cyclical model of technological change.
Industrial and Corporate Change, 19: 1655—1675. Competition may lead to price wars and reductions in profit. Counterarguments Supposing that AlphaZero did represent discontinuity on playing multiple games using the same system, there remains a question of whether that is a metric of sufficient interest to anyone that effort has been put into it. Waterson, Michael 1984 Economic Theory of the Industry. Academy of Management Annals, 10: 997—1076.
Doomsdays and New Dawns: Technological Discontinuities and Competence Ecosystems
Introduction The effect of discontinuous technological change on existing industries is a central theme in the literature on industrial innovation and technological development. This is discussed in another section. Since dominant designs reflect a set of technical, social, and political constraints, we expect to find at least one rival that is better than the dominant design in purely technical terms. Relatively few scholars have focused on the behavior of these incumbents. To anticipate technological discontinuities, organizations have developed sophisticated forecasting and planning tools. We measure the size of a discontinuity in terms of how many years of past progress would have been needed to produce the same improvement.
The latest tech discontinuities
Causal ambiguity, barriers to imitation, and sustainable competitive advantage. Because dominant designs emerge out of demand-driven competition between alternative technological orders, if either demand is low or technological competition is stunted or cut short, no industry standards will emerge for a given technological breakthrough. Crude initial designs rapidly improve Abernathy, 1978. They are usually initiated by new firms. Most of the clinkering took place in a chamber, where fine particles of raw material were whirled in hot air. In a world dominated by humans, going from being not quite competitive with humans to slightly better could represent a step change in value generated. Furthermore, because each compute blade is separate, communications applications such as unified messaging, IP-PBX and network management now can be integrated into the same chassis with IT applications.
Likelihood of discontinuous progress around the development of AGI
Organizations start to reduce the number of product experiments and begin to rationalize the production process as a dominant product design emerges. We thank an anonymous review for pointing out this possibility. Companies have the tendency to form alliances as the technology become more stable and as competitive pressure increases. The accepted wisdom at the turn of the century was that a rotary kiln could not exceed 60 feet in length, or it would warp and crack. While no firm conclusions can be drawn from two cases, the evidence is consistent with the idea that industries institutionalize their basic competences. Similar alliance has taken place between Microsoft and Intel. For example, When Amazon started selling books online Barnes and Nobles and other brick and mortar booksellers discounted the new technology model and now Barnes and Nobles may be on the brink of bankruptcy.
Catching Up in the Face of Technological Discontinuity: Exploring the Role of Demand Structure and Technological Regimes in the Transition from 2G to 3G in China
Kilns had gotten so large that adjustments made by an operator e. The remainder of the paper is structured as follows. After a dominant design is evolved, improvement becomes incremental. Technological discontinuities innovations that dramatically advance an industry's price vs. Because industry standards are not known in advance and are influenced by interorganizational dynamics, organizations must be able to combine technological capabilities with the ability to shape interorganizational networks and coalitions to influence the development of industry standards. These designs remain dominant until the next technological discontinuity. Because technology is partly a socially driven phenomenon, organizations may need to develop heterogeneous organizational and interorganizational competencies to deal with the divergent technological, organizational, and interorganizational requirements as technology cycles unfold in the course of their daily activities.
Forecasting technological discontinuities in the ICT industry
We now review and examine arguments that AGI is unusually likely to either produce a discontinuity, or follow one. Using the blade server in the same manner is more cost-effective and logical. Our study contributes towards filling this gap by analyzing two case studies of how the German automobile industry has reacted to environmental policy initiatives. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Once the path of technological discontinuity becomes clearer, organizations appear more likely to consider substantial investments in internal development or outright acquisitions of other firms, including their present alliance partner, to gain technology.