Western political thought definition. What is western political thought? 2022-11-19
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Western political thought is a term used to describe the various philosophical and political ideas that have developed within Western culture. It refers to the political theories and practices that have evolved within the Western world, particularly in Europe and North America, over the past several centuries.
One of the key figures in the development of western political thought was the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, who is credited with laying the foundations for much of the political thinking that has followed. Plato's ideas were influential in the development of democracy and the concept of the state, and his work continues to be studied and debated by political theorists today.
Another important figure in western political thought was the philosopher Thomas Hobbes, who is known for his ideas about the role of the state in society. Hobbes argued that the state is necessary to maintain order and protect individuals from the dangers of a chaotic and violent society. He also argued that the state should have absolute power over its citizens, a view that has been widely debated and criticized.
The Enlightenment period in the 18th century was a key time in the development of western political thought, as it saw the rise of several important philosophical and political figures such as John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant. These philosophers and others argued for the importance of individual rights and freedoms, and their ideas helped to shape the modern conception of democracy and human rights.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, western political thought was influenced by a number of different factors, including the rise of industrialization, the emergence of capitalism, and the influence of socialist and communist ideas. These developments led to the growth of various political movements, such as liberalism, conservatism, and socialism, which continue to shape political discourse and policy in the western world today.
Overall, western political thought is a vast and complex field that has been shaped by a wide range of philosophical, cultural, and historical factors. It continues to evolve and change as new ideas and challenges emerge, and it remains a key area of study for those interested in understanding the political systems and practices of the Western world.
Western Political Thought: 10 Western Political Thinkers
The rationalistic theories of Plato and Augustine and the classical empirical theories of Aristotle and Aquinas all leave us hoping that preferable alternatives might be forthcoming. The theories Aristotle gave for the conducting of ideal state are five in number. Children will be raised in common and will not know who their real parents are. Still, if we are as selfishly motivated by our own desires as Hobbes maintains, why should we not break our word and voluntarily commit injustice, if doing so is likely to pay off for us and we imagine we might get away with it remember the problem posed by Glaucon with the story of the ring of Gyges? Thomas Hobbes adapted this Machiavellian approach on a much larger scale. Third, the virtue of justice and the rules of justice are essentially connected to the protection of private property. Though Plato was more considerate to women than Aristotle in republic Plato stated women were to receive equal education to men. If Nozick accuses Rawls of going too far in requiring a redistribution of wealth, Nielsen criticizes him for favoring individual liberty at the expense of social equality.
In philosophy, Aristotle wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, psychology, rhetoric and theology. This article will focus on Western philosophical conceptions of justice. Capitalism and Western Civilization: Critical Thinking William Young describes the kind of critical thinking skil. Polemarchus may reflect the cultural influence of the Sophists, in specifying that it depends on whether people are our friends, deserving good from us, or foes, deserving harm. Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol.
Modern Versus Western Thought: An Overview by William H. Young
He showed the hierarchical situation in the family life also. Court of popular juries was a political institution as well as a democratic institution. While in Asia, Aristotle traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. In his Metaphysical Elements of Justice, which constitutes the first part of his Metaphysics of Morals, Kant develops his theory of justice. If the first inadequate theory of justice was too simplistic, this second one was downright dangerous.
Finally, in the area of retributive justice, we may briefly consider three scenarios. In his Metaphysics of Morals, Kant develops his ethical system, beyond this foundation, into a doctrine of right and a doctrine of virtue. While different peoples, internationally speaking, might be imagined in an original position under the veil of ignorance, and Rawls would favor encouraging equal liberties and opportunities for all, he refuses to apply the difference principle globally in such a way as to indicate that justice requires a massive redistribution of wealth from richer to poorer societies Peoples, pp. This included such important post-Aristotelians as the enormously influential Roman eclectic Cicero, such prominent Stoics as Marcus Aurelius a Roman emperor and Epictetus a Greek slave of the Romans , and neo-Platonists like Plotinus. And, if he was not the founder of this secular religion, he clearly became its most effective evangelist. Like Hobbes, Locke imagined a civil society capable of resolving conflicts in a civil way, with help from government.
Conclusion Political thought may be understood as the description of the political ideas of a host of political philosophers from the ancient Greeks if we are trying to know what it is in the West. The rationale for such principles of international justice is that they reduce the horrors of war and facilitate the advantages of peace. At any rate, they should be channeled toward societies in which they could improve the lot of the poor and disadvantaged. As an academic discipline, Western political philosophy has its origins in ancient Greek society, when city-states were experimenting with various forms of political organization including monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy. She bore him a daughter, whom they named after his wife, Pythias. What specifically distinguishes it from other moral virtues is that by justice, a person is consistently committed to respecting the rights of others over time.
The problem is in his assumptions that all values are relative to consequences, that human happiness is the ultimate good, and that this reduces to the maximization of pleasure and the minimization of pain. He shared the same truth for women as men. It is merely because it is the right thing to do. He is also known for his political and philosophical works. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993. Slaves were the people of lowest class of city states.
Introduction to Western Political Thought Literature review Example
Had Thrasymachus phrased this in terms of what serves the interest of society itself, the same appearance versus reality distinction would apply. Consider Locke's influence on Abraham Lincoln. If that were the case, then it would make sense to say that the role of reason is simply to calculate the most effective means to our most desirable ends. Although Aristotle wrote dialogues, only fragments of these have survived. Aristotle takes the same concept but more clearly defines it and takes it to the next level that goes beyond the perfect state and allows its applications to influence the whole system rather that purely serve as its basis.
On the other hand, he said philosopher kings can copulate with any women in the state whom they want to. Aristotle takes a more lenient attitude in his philosophy in general, in which its application is easier to real life. For Hume, even though our being just may not benefit us directly all the time, it is conducive to public utility or the good of the society of which we are members. And, fourth, he considers public utility to be the sole basis of justice. In ancient time Greece was formed by many city states. Both the substances of his thought and the form in which it is expressed have fascinated all succeeding generations and have simulated endless imitations. .
POLSC201: Introduction to Western Political Thought, Topic: Unit 2: Modern Political Thought
As to him, slavery system is based on two principles. Aristotle has taken this reproduction capability so negatively that he not only have said them impotent males but also showed it as a cause why they have to stay in home. As justice is both a moral and a political virtue, helping to prescribe both a good character and right conduct, the question of how such obligations arise is crucial. He made people think and act through his contributions. .
New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Book V of his great Nicomachean Ethics deals in considerable depth with the moral and political virtue of justice. The thought has been developed with the stream of time by a range of political philosophers. Like Hobbes, Hume is a radical empiricist and a determinist who is skeptical of justice as an objective, absolute virtue. Education theory: In education Plato sees the only true way to the permanent stability of the state. Unlike Hobbes, he does not see this as a basis for all moral duty.